Archive for the 'Translation' Category

Introduction Wholesale Minnesota Vikings Jerseys

Every language contains “figures of speech”; that is, methods of speaking that are not literally true, but which are used to convey a point. For example, in the English language, the phrases “I’m so hungry I could eat a horse”, and “He has two left feet”, are very obvious idioms. That is, those statements are not literally true; rather they are colloquialisms used for emphasis.

One figure of speech that is used in Hebrew is called “prolepsis”. With that idiom, events that will occur are spoken of as if they had already occurred. In other words, future events are referred to as if they were past events.


One of the most frequently recited wholesale nfl jerseys from china verses in Scripture is Deuteronomy 6:4. In other words, that verse is spoken – out loud from memory – on an extremely frequent basis. For example, observant Orthodox Jews will recite that verse at least twice a day – once in the morning, and once in the evening.

The Hebrew in that verse is pronounced as follows:

Sh’ma Yis’ra’eil Adonai Eloheinu Adonai echad.

Here is the translation of that verse, from the ESV:

“Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God, the Lord is one.

All of the other common English translations of the Bible have extremely similar renderings of that verse.

In the first part of this investigation into the holy spirit and translation bias, I limited my focus to relative pronouns used to refer to the holy spirit.  In what follows I will broaden my inquiry to include several other key texts and important concepts related to the God’s spirit.  First I will discuss in detail the primary texts used to prove the personhood of the spirit on grammatical grounds, before I make the case that the biblical concept of God’s spirit resists categorization.
Key Texts Used to Establish Personhood[1]

Before jumping in to exegete each of the primary texts commonly used to affirm the personality of the spirit, I will begin by citing Millard Erickson’s words to show how the argument typically works:

Translators have historically held incredible power to influence millions of Bible-readers over the eons.  Many impressive developments have occurred in the field of textual criticism and lexicology over the last century.  Today we can access dozens of English translations, Greek interlinears, and lexical aids online for free.  In no other age have Christians had better access to biblical tools for personal study than today.  Even so, rather surprisingly, many Bibles contain wild distortions, especially on texts related to dogmas long ago etched in the stone of infallible tradition.  The uninformed Christian walking into a local bookstore sees dozens of Bible translations lining the shelves and picks the one that best meets his or her needs—the Green Bible, the Extreme Teen Bible, the American Patriot’s Bible, the Catholic Holy Bible, the Archeology Study Bible, the Life Application Study Bible, and so on.  The number of translations produced in the last sixty years is even more impressive.  Here are some of the major ones in chronological order.