Galatians 3:24 ESV - guardian; KJV – schoolmaster; NAU - tutor. The Law served as a pedagogue until Christ. The synagogue was a place to teach; while a tutor or pedagogue was a guardian and guide of boys. Among the Greeks and the Romans, the name was applied to trustworthy slaves who were charged with the duty of supervising the lives and morals of boys belonging to the better class. The boys were not allowed so much as to step out of the house without them before arriving at the age of manhood.
Luke 24:27, 44; John 1:45; 5:45 and 46; Acts 3:21-26 Moses (Genesis through Deuteronomy) and all the prophets wrote about the Messiah.
Hebrews 8:5 God gave Moses a very specific pattern to follow because the tabernacle served as copy and shadow of the heavenly things.
10:1 The Law was a shadow of what was to come. The words "shadow," "example," "figure," "type," and "pattern" all describe the relationship the OT has to the NT, especially regarding Jesus.
Shadow of Good Things to Come
|Adam Genesis 1:26-2:25||Jesus, 2nd Adam 1 Corinthians 15:45-49; Romans 5:12ff|
|Paradise Genesis 2:8-25||New Paradise Luke 23:42 & 43; 2 Corinthians 2:1-4;
|Tree of Life Genesis 2:9; 3:22-24||Tree of Life Revelations 2:7; 22:1-14|
|Seed of the woman Genesis 3:15||Mary Isaiah 7:14; Matthew 1:23; Luke 1:31-35; Rev 12:1-5|
|Abel’s sacrifice Genesis 4:4||The righteous sacrifice Hebrews 11:4|
|Cain’s sin Genesis 5:4-15||Evil way of Cain 1 John 3:12; Jude 1:11|
|Enoch Genesis 5:19-24||Prophecy of judgment Jude 1:14 & 15|
|Judgment by flood Genesis 6:1-8:22||Judgment by fire 1 Peter 3:18-22|
|Curse of Canaan Genesis 9:25-27||Christ reign over all enemies 1 Corinthians 15:24 & 25|
|Melchizedek, High priest/king of Salem (Jerusalem) Genesis 14:18||Jesus, High Priest and King of Jerusalem
Hebrews 5:5-7; 7:1-28
|Abraham’s seed Genesis 15:1ff||Christ Galatians 3:16|
|Hagar and Ishmael Genesis 16:1ff||Those desiring Law Galatians 4:21-31|
|Abraham sacrificing Isaac Genesis 22:1-19||God sacrificing Jesus Hebrews 11:17-19|
|Esau’s birthright sold Genesis 25:29-34||God’s choice for judgment Romans 9:10-13|
|Isaac’s promised seed Genesis 26:3-5||God’s choice for mercy Romans 9:10-33|
|Tamar’s children Genesis 38:1-30||Genealogy of Christ Matthew 1:1-3|
|Joseph, pharaoh’s vice-regent Genesis 41:46-45:28||Christ, God’s vice-regent Ephesians 1:20-23|
|Judah as a lion’s whelp Genesis 49:8-12||Jesus Christ Revelation 5:5|
|Pharaoh’s hardness Exodus 5:1-14:31||God’s magnification Romans 9:17 & 18|
|Joshua (Jesus) led them into the promised land Deuteronomy 34:9; Book of Joshua||Jesus will lead the righteous into the Promised Land|
The Tabernacle, a Pattern for Christ
Hebrews 8:5 God’s initial communication having to do with the tabernacle explains one primary purpose for it: "...that I may dwell among them" (Exodus 25:8). Israel apparently needed a visible object representing God. The tabernacle served as a place for God to dwell among His people and a place where His people could commune with Him. Although the tabernacle made God accessible to the people, it also emphatically communicated that He was only approachable in holiness. The structure and service of the tabernacle showed a sinful people how they could come before a holy God in worship and service. It also provided a place to offer sacrifice for sin (Leviticus chapters 1, 7, 16, and 17). Therefore, it was a graphic portrayal of God’s
Another primary purpose for the tabernacle, its ordinances, and service was to be a figure that looked toward Jesus Christ’s sacrificial death as well as man’s ultimate redemption and reconciliation to God.
The entire tabernacle with all of its implements was a shadowy type for the true tabernacle in heaven where Christ is now serving as the High Priest.
The Brazen Altar (Exodus 27:1-8) - was used for the practice of sacrificing animals which was a type for Jesus Christ, the final and complete sacrifice. 2 Corinthians 5:21
The Laver of Brass (Exodus 30:17-28; 40:7-30) - was for the priests to wash. It was a type for the cleansing accomplished by our Lord Jesus Christ. Revelation 1:5
The Golden Lampstand (Exodus 25:31-40; 37:17-24) - provided the only light within the tabernacle. Jesus called himself the light of life. John 8:12; 9:5
The Table of Shewbread (Exodus 25:23-30; Leviticus 24:5-9) - held 12 new cakes of bread which were the meat offering from the children of Israel. Jesus is the bread of life. John 6:31-35, 48-51
The Altar of Incense (Exodus 30:1-10, 34-38) - is where the incense burned, filling the tabernacle with a unique, sweet-smelling fragrance. The offering of Christ is to God a sweet-smelling savor. Ephesians 5:2; Romans 8:34; Revelation 8:3 and 4
The Veil (vail) (Exodus 26:31-33; 36:35-38) - hung beautifully between the holy place and the holy of holies. It was multicolored and embroidered with images of cherubim. The veil separated the priests from God’s glorious presence. As much as the tabernacle represented the presence of God among His people, it also clearly declared their separation from Him.
None of the people except the priests was allowed in the holy place. The holy of holies represents the exact place God communed with the high priest. Only the high priest was allowed to pass through the veil and then only once a year on the Day of Atonement.
When Adam and Eve disobeyed God’s command, they were driven out of the Garden of Eden. God placed cherubim at the east of the Garden of Eden to keep them from the tree of life (Genesis 3:24). Likewise, the cherubim woven on the veil symbolically kept Israel from God’s presence. Only one man once a year had access into God’s presence.
Simultaneously with the sacrificial death of Jesus on the cross, the veil was rent in two. In a simple yet profound act, God tore away the barrier that separated Him from sinful humanity. Matthew 27:51; Hebrews 6:19 and 20
The Ark of the Covenant (Exodus 25:10-16; 37:1-5) was symbolic of God’s throne and presence. Three items in the ark:
- Manna was called the bread from heaven (Exodus 16:4). Jesus Christ is the true bread from heaven that gives life unto the world (John 6:31-35).
- Aaron’s Rod that budded which signified that Aaron was God’s chosen high priest. Aaron was a type for Jesus Christ, our High Priest (Hebrews 5:1-8:13).
- The Tablets of Law (Exodus 20:1-17; 32:15; Deuteronomy 10:2) were also in the ark. The tablet contained the Word of God for Israel. Jesus Christ is the living Word of God (John 1:14).
The Mercy Seat (Exodus 25:17-22; 37:6-9) was the cover for the ark made of pure gold. On top of the ark, at each end, stood two cherubim of gold facing each other but looking down toward the mercy seat. Between the cherubim on the mercy seat, God dwelled (Psalms 80:1; 99:1). Jesus Christ is also called the mercy seat (Hebrews 9:5; Romans 3:25). The mercy seat on the ark was the place where mercy was manifested and reconciliation appropriated and, as such, is a type for Jesus Christ.
High Priest (Exodus 28:1-29:46; Leviticus 8:1-9:24) was also a type for Christ. Aaron and his descendants served as high priests until God’s Son became the final High Priest. Their service was a type for what Jesus would eventually do. The high priesthood was a shadowy type just like everything else relating to the tabernacle. It was shadowy not only in type but also in effectiveness. The high priest went into the holy of holies; Jesus Christ ascended into heaven (Hebrews 8:1-28).
Day of Atonement was the one day the high priest could enter the holy of holies. Christ has entered into the holy of holies and remains there until he returns. Today is the day of atonement for man, but when he returns, it will be the day of judgment.
All these things and much more were types for that which Christ would do and accomplish for the reconciliation of mankind. Since Christ has come and has already been offered as man’s sacrifice for sin, the type is no longer needed. When the actual has come, the type’s purpose and effectiveness have ended. When Christ died on the cross, the old covenant was fulfilled. God indeed gave Israel the land He promised and provided the perfect sacrifice for their sins. Therefore, the Mosaic Covenant has ended, and a new covenant has begun.